From to the midth century Revolution and empire The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment. Many ways of thinking and feeling—whether based on reason, sentimentor an exacerbated sensibility—and most literary forms persisted with little change from to Certainly, the Napoleonic regime encouraged a return to the Classical mode.
See Article History John Ruskin, born February 8,LondonEngland—died January 20,Coniston, LancashireEnglish critic of art, architecture, and society who was a gifted painter, a distinctive prose stylist, and an important example of the Victorian Sage, or Prophet: Early life and influences Ruskin was born into the commercial classes of the prosperous and powerful Britain of the years immediately following the Napoleonic Wars.
His father, John James Ruskin, was a Scots wine merchant who had moved to London and made a fortune in the sherry trade. In his formative years, painters such as J. At the same time religious writers and preachers such as Charles SimeonJohn KebleThomas Arnoldand John Henry Newman were establishing the spiritual and ethical preoccupations that would characterize the reign of Queen Victoria.
After five years at the University of Oxfordduring which he won the Newdigate Prize for poetry but was prevented by ill health from sitting for an honours degree, Ruskin returned, into his abandoned project of defending and explaining the late work of Turner.
Art criticism In Ruskin published the first volume of Modern Paintersa book that would eventually consist of five volumes and occupy him for the next 17 years.
By avant-garde painters had been working in this new spirit for several decades, but criticism and public understanding had lagged behind. More decisively than any previous writer, Ruskin brought 19th-century English painting and 19th-century English art criticism into sympathetic alignment.
As he did so, he alerted readers to the fact that they had, in Turner, one of the greatest painters in the history of Western art alive and working among them in contemporary London, and, in the broader school of English landscape paintinga major modern art movement. Ruskin did this in a prose style peculiarly well adapted to the discussion of the visual arts in an era when there was limited reproductive illustration and no easy access to well-stocked public art galleries.
In these circumstances the critic was obliged to create in words an effective sensory and emotional substitute for visual experience.
In the process Ruskin introduced the newly wealthy commercial and professional classes of the English-speaking world to the possibility of enjoying and collecting art.
Since most of them had been shaped by an austerely puritanical religious tradition, Ruskin knew that they would be suspicious of claims for painting that stressed its sensual or hedonic qualities.
Despite his friendships with individual Aesthetes, Ruskin would remain the dominant spokesman for a morally and socially committed conception of art throughout his lifetime. Art, architecture, and society After the publication of the first volume of Modern Painters inRuskin became aware of another avant-garde artistic movement: He wrote about these Idealist painters especially GiottoFra Angelicoand Benozzo Gozzoli at the end of the second volume of Modern Painters, and he belatedly added an account of them to the third edition of the first volume in This medievalist enthusiasm was one reason that Ruskin was so ready to lend his support to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood PRBa group of young English artists formed in to reject the Neoclassical assumptions of contemporary art schools.
Ruskin published an enthusiastic pamphlet about the PRB in which he misleadingly identified them as the natural heirs of Turner inwrote letters to the Times in and to defend them from their critics, and recommended their work in his Edinburgh Lectures of published But medievalism was even more important in the field of architecture, where the Gothic Revival was as direct an expression of the new Romantic spirit as the landscape painting of Turner or Constable.
Innewly married to Euphemia Effie Gray, Ruskin went on a honeymoon tour of the Gothic churches of northern France and began to write his first major book on buildings, The Seven Lamps of Architecture In November Ruskin went abroad again, this time to Venice to research a more substantial book on architecture.
The Stones of Venice was published in three volumes, one in and two more in In part it is a laboriously researched history of Venetian architecture, based on long months of direct study of the original buildings, then in a condition of serious neglect and decay.
But it is also a book of moral and social polemic with the imaginative structure of a Miltonic or Wordsworthian sublime epic. As such, the book is a distinguished late example of the political medievalism found in the work of William CobbettRobert SoutheyThomas Carlyleand the Young England movement of the s.
Ruskin differs from these predecessors both in the poetic power of his prose and in his distinctive—and widely influential—insistence that art and architecture are, necessarily, the direct expression of the social conditions in which they were produced. The Stones of Venice was influential in other ways as well.
Its celebration of Italian Gothic encouraged the use of foreign models in English Gothic Revival architecture. Gothic architecturehe believed, allowed a significant degree of creative freedom and artistic fulfillment to the individual workman.
We could not, and should not, take pleasure in an object that had not itself been made with pleasure. Cultural criticism Turner died in Ruskin withdrew somewhat from society. He contributed both financially and physically to the construction of a major Gothic Revival building: But by Ruskin was beginning to move on from the specialist criticism of art and architecture to a wider concern with the cultural condition of his age.
His growing friendship with the historian and essayist Thomas Carlyle contributed to this process. Beginning as an art critic, Ruskin contrasts the exquisite sculptured iron grilles of medieval Verona with the mass-produced metal security railings with which modern citizens protect their houses.
By wearing the fetters of a benignly neofeudalist social order, men and women, Ruskin believed, might lead lives of greater aesthetic fulfillment, in an environment less degraded by industrial pollution. Unto This Last and Munera Pulveris and as books, though published in magazines in and —63 are attacks on the classical economics of Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.
Sesame and Lilies would become notorious in the late 20th century as a stock example of Victorian male chauvinism. In fact, Ruskin was using the conventional construction of the feminine, as pacific, altruistic, and uncompetitive, to articulate yet another symbolic assertion of his anticapitalist social model.
In The Queen of the Air he attempted to express his old concept of a divine power in Nature in new terms calculated for an age in which assent to the Christian faith was no longer automatic or universal.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. French literature - From to the midth century: The French Revolution of provided no clean break with the complex literary culture of the Enlightenment. Many ways of thinking and feeling—whether based on reason, sentiment, or an exacerbated sensibility—and most literary forms persisted with little change from to The French revolution of At the close of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars () the Bourbon dynasty was restored in France in the person of a brother of the King who had been sent to the guillotine during the revolution.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. - The revolution of encompassed many of the European countries. The revolutions sweeping across Europe included Germany, Italy, and France, excluding Russia and England.
Many historians refer to the year of as, “The Year of Revolutions”, because of how the revolts spread throughout Europe. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from grupobittia.com