The Abstract is the initial summary of the story, typically in the title of the text and at times in an opening section. It provides the first decision point for the reader about reading on. A fruitful approach to narrative analysis is to explore the appropriateness of the title. The Orientation establishes time and place, the social context of the narrative, inviting the reader to accept and enter that world for the duration of the story.
Successful novelist E M Forster discusses the craft of story writing. In he was invited to give a series of lectures which were later published as Aspects of the Novel. More recently, with the appearance during the s and s of detailed manuals on the craft of storytelling, his insights can seem superficial.
But his observations are a primer in the essentials of storytelling. He makes a clear distinction between story and plot, and emphasises the relationship between character and incident.
And his discussion of fantasy, prophecy and rhythm encourages us that truly great writing goes beyond storytelling. Story A story is a narrative of events arranged in their time sequence — it simply tells us what happened and in what order.
It is the time sequence which turns a random collection of episodes into a story. But chronological sequence is a very primitive feature and it can have only one merit: The only skill of a storyteller is their ability to wield the weapon of suspense, making the audience eager to discover the next event in the sequence.
This emphasis on chronological sequence is a difference from real life. Our real lives also unfold through time but have the added feature that some experiences have greater value and meaning than others.
Value has no role in a story, which is concerned with the life in time rather than the life by values. And because human lives measured by time consist of nothing more than the business of getting old, a story cannot sincerely lead to any conclusion but the grave. The basis of a novel is a story — the narration of events in the order they happened — but storytelling alone can never produce a great novel.
The simple chronological narrative of War and Peace only manages to achieve some kind of greatness because it has extended over space as well as time, and the sense of space until it terrifies us is exhilarating, and leaves behind it an effect like music.
After one has read War and Peace for a bit, great chords begin to sound, and we cannot exactly say what struck them. They come from the immense area of Russia, over which episodes and characters have been scattered, from the sum-total of bridges and frozen rivers, forests, roads, gardens, fields, which accumulate grandeur and sonority after we have passed them.
People A novelist can only begin to explore the value of human experiences by developing the characters of the story. But Forster emphasises that characters are not real people; rather they are like real people. In daily life we never understand each other, neither complete clairvoyance nor complete confessional exists.
But people in a novel can be understood completely by the reader, if the novelist wishes; their inner as well as their outer life can be exposed. We cannot understand each other, except in a rough and ready way; we cannot reveal ourselves, even when we want to; what we call intimacy is only makeshift; perfect knowledge is an illusion.
But in the novel we can know people perfectly. It is this completeness that allows characters to take on the air of being real, and gives us a definition as to when a character in a book is real: He may not tell us all he knows, but he will give us the feeling that though the character has not been explained, it is explicable.
Forster distinguishes between flat characters and round characters. These characters are easily recognised when first introduced and easily remembered afterwards, and their memorability appeals to our yearning for permanence. They are best when they are comic. A serious or tragic flat character is apt to be a bore.
Dickens wrote flat characters superbly well. Nearly every one can be summed up in a sentence, and yet there is this wonderful feeling of human depth. Probably the immense vitality of Dickens causes his characters to vibrate a little, so that they borrow his life and appear to lead one of their own.
It is a conjuring trick.A term coined by English novelist E.M. Forster to describe a complex character who is presented in depth and detail in a narrative. Round characters are those who change significantly during the course of a narrative.
Most often, round characters are the central characters in a narrative. In the realm of narrative psychology, a person’s life story is not a Wikipedia biography of the facts and events of a life, but rather the way a . In Aspects of the Novel grupobittia.comr refers to ‘flat' and ‘round' characters, where the former always behave in a stereotypical way in any situation, while the latter are less predictable and their character evolves over the novel time.
The reader is often invited to empathise with a protagonist, and one of the interesting features of such reading is to predict or be surprised by the way s/he reacts to events. Narrative time: the grammatical placement of the story's time-frame in the past, the present, or the future.
A narrator is a personal character or a non-personal voice that the creator (author) of the story develops to deliver information to the audience, particularly about the plot. In the case of most written narratives (novels, short stories, poems, .
Forster’s use of third person omniscient narration is helpful to the reader and it creates a level of depth in his novels.
By being able to process all of the characters’ thoughts, not just those of the main character, it is useful in analyzing the events of the book and judging the characters’ personalities. E M Forster was a successful novelist and later an academic. Three of his novels, A Room with a View (), Howard’s End () and A Passage to India () have been made into films.
In he was invited to give a series of lectures which were later published as Aspects of the Novel.