But you can reach out to them, and all day long. The wind, the bird flying away. The idea of God.
India Table of Contents Varna, Caste, and Other Divisions Although many other nations are characterized by social inequality, perhaps nowhere else in the world has inequality been so elaborately constructed as in the Indian institution of caste.
Caste has long existed in India, but in the modern period it has been severely criticized by both Indian and foreign observers. Although some educated Indians tell non-Indians that caste has been abolished or that "no one pays attention to caste anymore," such statements do not reflect reality.
Caste has undergone significant change since independence, but it still involves hundreds of millions of people. In its preamble, India's constitution forbids negative public discrimination on the basis of caste.
However, caste ranking and caste-based interaction have occurred for centuries and will continue to do so well into the foreseeable future, more in the countryside than in urban settings and more in the realms of kinship and marriage than in less personal interactions. Castes are ranked, named, endogamous in-marrying groups, membership in which is achieved by birth.
There are thousands of castes and subcastes in India, and these large kinship-based groups are fundamental to South Asian social structure.
Each caste is part of a locally based system of interde-pendence with other groups, involving occupational specialization, and is linked in complex ways with networks that stretch across regions and throughout the nation. The word caste derives from the Portuguese castameaning breed, race, or kind.
Among the Indian terms that are sometimes translated as caste are varna see Glossaryjati see Glossaryjatbiradriand samaj. All of these terms refer to ranked groups of various sizes and breadth.
Varnaor color, actually refers to large divisions that include various castes; the other terms include castes and subdivisions of castes sometimes called subcastes. Many castes are traditionally associated with an occupation, such as high-ranking Brahmans; middle-ranking farmer and artisan groups, such as potters, barbers, and carpenters; and very low-ranking "Untouchable" leatherworkers, butchers, launderers, and latrine cleaners.
There is some correlation between ritual rank on the caste hierarchy and economic prosperity. Members of higher-ranking castes tend, on the whole, to be more prosperous than members of lower-ranking castes. Many lower-caste people live in conditions of great poverty and social disadvantage.
According to the Rig Veda, sacred texts that date back to oral traditions of more than 3, years ago, progenitors of the four ranked varna groups sprang from various parts of the body of the primordial man, which Brahma created from clay see The Vedas and Polytheism, ch.
Each group had a function in sustaining the life of society--the social body. Brahmans, or priests, were created from the mouth. They were to provide for the intellectual and spiritual needs of the community.
Kshatriyas, warriors and rulers, were derived from the arms. Their role was to rule and to protect others. Vaishyas--landowners and merchants--sprang from the thighs, and were entrusted with the care of commerce and agriculture.
Shudras--artisans and servants--came from the feet. Their task was to perform all manual labor.New hate crime tracker in India finds victims are predominantly Muslims, perpetrators Hindus (Nov 13, , grupobittia.com) the world has become a progressively more frightening and dangerous place to live in for minorities of various kinds - religious, national, racial, linguistic, ethnic, and sexual - as well as for left and liberal dissidents.
Mar 17, · Prepared in collaboration with Tarunabh Khaitan, an Associate Professor in Oxford who has been campaigning for such a law in India for the past several years, Dr Tharoor pointed out while introducing the Bill that “Cases of discrimination continue to be witnessed they are frequently directed against Dalits, Muslims, Women, Persons of Author: NH Political Bureau.
Religions of the world Menu Main essays & sections on this web site: Overview: As of mid, this web site has passed its 22nd anniversary. When the site first went online, the Internet was in its infancy.
Religious Freedom "Religious freedom," if properly understood, should be a principle that everyone can embrace. It encompasses freedom to practice one's religion, freedom in matters of religion (e.g., freedom from religion), and, more broadly, freedom in matters of conscience.
India is the oldest continuous civilization in the world, and this has enabled India to absorb a variety of cultures from all around the world (Singh, Bhatia, Chaubey, Datta, and Samson, ).
There is no such thing as “Indian Food”.
HIV-related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes and abuse directed at people living with HIV and AIDS. In 35% of countries with available data, over 50% of people report having discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV.1 Stigma and discrimination also makes people vulnerable to HIV.