Upon completion, the reader should be able to: Discuss the functions of the respiratory system and describe and identify the anatomical components of the respiratory system. Distinguish between restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease and give examples of each. Discuss the gross structure of the lungs and arrangement and significance of thoracic serous membranes.
Top of page The original genus name Cassia applied by Linnaeus is from the Greek 'kasia', derived by Dioscorides first century AD from the Hebrew 'quetsi'oth', denoting 'fragrant shrubs'; occidentalis is Latin, meaning 'of the west', indicating that the plant is a native of the western hemisphere, principally the Americas Parsons and Cuthbertson, There were over species of the genus Cassia before its division into three separate genera, Cassia, Chamaecrista and Senna Robertson, According to numerical cluster analysis of seed proteins, Cassia occidentalis was placed within the subgenus Senna by Ghareeb et al.
The taxonomic significance of foliar epidermal features stomata, epidermal cells and trichomes of S. However, references to many Senna spp. Description Top of page The morphology of S.
It is a low growing, sparsely branching annual or short-lived perennial plant up to 0. The stems are reddish purple, erect, 4-angled when young, becoming rounded with age. The plant has a robust primary root with several laterals. The leaves are pale green on reddish stalks; alternate, pinnate, with sometimes 6 pairs of opposite ovate to lanceolate-elliptic leaflets, mm long, mm wide, rounded at the base.
A conspicuous, dark-coloured gland occurs at the base of the petiole leaf stalk but not on the stalks of the leaflets. The flowers are pale to bright yellow, mm in diameter, in flowered axils of the upper leaves; sepals are red veined; 5 petals per flower, the 2 anterior ones are smaller than the others; fertile stamens 6, the two basal ones longer than the rest, 4 infertile stamens are reduced to tiny petal-like staminodes.
Further descriptions of the floral anatomy of S.
The fruit is a dark brown, flattened, sickle-shaped pod with paler stripes along the edges when mature. Pods are mm long, mm wide, containing a single row of seeds. The seeds are dark brown, flattened, hard, 5 mm long and 3 mm wide.Cattle - Diseases & Conditions. This presents some information about the more important diseases affecting cattle in the U.K.
Cerebral Contusion is a Head injury that More serious than a concussion, a cerebral contusion is an ecchymosed of brain tissue that results from a severe blow to the head.
The term granulomatous lung disease does not refer to a specific disease entity, but to a wide spectrum of pathologies with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes.
Types. Genetic testing is "the analysis of chromosomes (), proteins, and certain metabolites in order to detect heritable disease-related genotypes, mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes for clinical purposes." It can provide information about a person's genes and chromosomes throughout life.
Available types of testing include: Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) testing is a non-invasive (for the. Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath due to over-inflation of the alveoli (air sacs in the lung).
In people with emphysema, the lung tissue involved in exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) is impaired or destroyed.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production.
COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such .