Hospital Think about the causes of success and failure for particular movements. What causes some to become widely appealing and have major impacts on change? What causes others regardless of the validity of their concerns to simply wither away in the dustbin of history? Can you think of some that have evolved into stable organizations without much impact on social change?
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The term New Age applies to the extensive range of belief systems and therapies that have developed since the s. Where New Age is centred on some form of beliefs, these rarely fit into normal religious categories as they do not follow sacred texts or have a belief in God.
Therefore the idea that New Age reflects a growing spirituality depends on the definition and understanding of what constitute New Age and spirituality respectively. In terms of addressing the question, it flags up that this really depends on how New Age and spirituality are defined.
Many argued that declining participation in mainstream religion was evidence of secularisation. However, the problem with declining congregations is that this in itself does not necessarily mean that religiosity is declining but rather becoming privatised.
Note the good AO2 evaluation point that declining church attendance does not in itself support a decline in religion. The Kendal Project appeared to suggest that the holistic milieu was growing at a fast rate, providing evidence of a spiritual revolution.
They argued that people were increasingly searching for avenues that were increasingly individualistic and offered a route to self-discovery rather than conventional religions that demanded subordination to a higher authority. However, Heelas et al.
In addition, the kind of people attracted to the holistic milieu were from a narrow background and not reflective of the wider population. This paragraph discusses the Kendal Project as evidence according to Heelas et al.
This is evaluated on the basis that the spiritual revolution if it is taking place appeals mainly to women and older people. New Age offers a means for people to express themselves in an individualistic manner that is rooted in ideas of self-improvement.
In this way it shares the characteristics of world-affirming new religious movements NRMs with their emphasis on personal potential.
Steve Bruce, who advocates the secularisation thesis, points out that these groups are, on the one hand, marginal and hence socially insignificant, and on the other hand, little to do with spirituality and more to do with therapies like crystal therapy, colour therapy, massage etc. However, to the individuals who participate in such self-improvement areas there may well be a genuine spiritual motive.
On the other hand, it may be that people engage at a non-spiritual level, for example having massages for health or stress-relieving reasons.
This paragraph discusses further the nature of New Age and makes a useful comparison with world-affirming NRMs. The work of Bruce is used to question the extent of spirituality within such therapies.
Many postmodernists, such as Jean Lyotard, argue that people have lost confidence in the meta-narratives of both science and religion.
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As a consequence they may see New-Age movements as offering answers and solutions to their individual and personal rationales. However, as noted above there seems to be little appetite in the majority of the population for New Age, so the idea that the spiritual shopper is widespread needs to be challenged.
Such people are overwhelmingly middle class, often ex-hippies or those who work in people-centred jobs, as well as being predominantly female and middle-aged or older. This paragraph locates New Age within the context of postmodernism. The idea of people operating as spiritual shoppers is outlined and then evaluated, reinforcing an earlier point that New Age appeals to quite a narrow sector of the population.
Bruce does not see New Age as evidence of increased spirituality or against the secularisation argument. However, while such activities may be passed off as indulgences for those who can afford them, it is possible that, for some at least, an element of spirituality is sought and valued.
But if this is the case, it is only true for a tiny section of the population. This paragraph returns to the ideas of Bruce. It provides some more examples of New-Age activities and is followed by an evaluative point.
In conclusion, it would seem that New Age is not evidence of a growing spirituality in society. It is an area that is peripheral to mainstream society, and attractive to mainly middle-class women in their middle age.LITERATURE? AN OVERVIEW When the English preacher and writer Sidney Smith asked in , “In the you make connections between and among the movements, eras, and authors covered in each unit.
Century Era American Passages Literary Movements Fifteenth– Renaissance (1: Native Voices).
Comparative Essay; The impact of religious reform movements in Christianity and Islam Custom Essay [meteor_slideshow slideshow=”arp1″] Description: In the first part of this course, the Early Modern Era (), one of the main themes is the beginnings of globalization. Example essay on American Reforms: America experienced many kinds of reforms during the time period between and The different types of reform movements in the United States during this time period sought to expand democratic ideals through religious, women’s, and social reforms.
Mar 31, · Throughout the history of the United States there have been many reform movements that have molded the culture we live in today. The rights that we as Americans enjoy today can be credited to the people who fought for more rights and a better way of life.
American Reform Movements From to reforms emerged in the United States in attempt to create a more advanced society. Many of the movements that were attempted failed due to either entrenched social conservatism or weaknesses in the movements themselves.
Document Interpretation 5: Moral Reform Movements – History All the Time Overview One of the most important skills a historian develops is the ability to evaluate historical documents.